Kamus Jawa Kuno - Inggris





The Old Javanese-English Dictionary, by P.J. Zoetmulder with the assistance of S.O. Robson (1982, KITLV), provided the first authoritative lexical reference and extensive corpus of pre-modern Javanese literature and inscriptions, and revolutionized the field of Old Javanese studies.


Zoetmulder began work in 1950, after accepting the position of Chair of Old Javanese at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakart.  He did not have ready access to the major manuscript collections in Bali, Jakarta, and Leyden, and was obliged to rely on romanized copies for the major part of his unpublished sources.  Even after accepting this impediment to "scholarly perfection" he lamented that at the time I did not forsee that it would take thirty years to complete the task (Preface).


With the collaboration of Robson (beginning in 1972), Zoetmulder stayed the course.  As it stands, the OJED contains more than 25,500 headword entries, more than 18,000 subheads, nearly 8,500 indications of Sanskrit origin, and over 105,000 corpus citations from more than 120 identified sources. 


This project was initially broached to the KITLV in 2008, following our collaboration with Russell Jones in preparing an on-line edition of the Indonesian Etymological Project's Loan-Words in Indonesian and Malay (KITLV 2007).  Fortutuitously, Arlo Griffiths of the EFEO made a similar request to KITLV in 2009, with the intention of ultimately establishing an editorial board able to supervise ongoing correction and extension of the original OJED.  The EFEO provided funding to double-key the complete work (using facilities in Tamilnadu organized by Thomas Malten to support the many lexicography projects of the Institut fur Indologie und Tamilistik), and has generously shared this text with us.


As with similar SEAlang Library projects, our goal is to extend rather than simply reproduce the original print work.  While the OJED was printed as a dictionary with supporting text citations, it is both a dictionary and a text corpus.  In effect, this project exposes the full corpus to discovery tools, returning queries in every available corpus citation context, tabulating any query term's immediate neighbors or collocates, allowing drill-down to multi-word collocations, showing all entries from a particular source, and so on.


Although we have opened this site to allow reference and classroom use, it must be considered to be a work in progress.  As Zoetmulder (quoting Robson) notes, spelling was often inconsistent in original manuscripts, a problem that was magnified rather than resolved by the subsequent copyists whose texts he had to rely on.  Software tools are able to reveal but not rectify many uncertain points, discussed below under Known issues.


Future work at CRCL will focus on making source images and transcribed electronic texts of the original inscriptions and manuscripts freely available, along with with appropriate tools for corpus linguistcs.  See Old Javanese for a basic epigraphic inventory (from Nakada, Kozo. 1982. An Inventory of the Dated Inscriptions in Java. Toyo Bunko, Japan), with texts known to be flawed as available (from Sakar, Himansu Bhusan. 1971-1972. Corpus of the inscriptions of Java. K.H. Mukhopadhyay, Calcutta).  Please contact us if you are interested in joining this effort. 

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